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Puzzle:

There are 4 mathematicians - Brahma, Sachin, Prashant and Nakul - having lunch in a hotel. Suddenly, Brahma thinks of 2 integer numbers greater than 1 and says, "The sum of the numbers is..." and he whispers the sum to Sachin. Then he says, "The product of the numbers is..." and he whispers the product to Prashant. After that following conversation takes place :

Sachin : Prashant, I don't think that we know the numbers.

Prashant : Aha!, now I know the numbers.

Sachin : Oh, now I also know the numbers.

Nakul : Now, I also know the numbers.

What are the numbers?

For Solution SCROLL DOWN...

Solution:

The numbers are 4 and 13.

As Sachin is initially confident that they (i.e. he and Prashant) don't know the numbers, we can conclude that -

1) The sum must not be expressible as sum of two primes, otherwise Sachin could not have been sure in advance that Prashant did not know the numbers.

2) The product cannot be less than 12, otherwise there would only be one choice and Prashant would have figured that out also.

Such possible sum are - 11, 17, 23, 27, 29, 35, 37, 41, 47, 51, 53, 57, 59, 65, 67, 71, 77, 79, 83, 87, 89, 93, 95, 97, 101, 107, 113, 117, 119, 121, 123, 125, 127, 131, 135, 137, 143, 145, 147, 149, 155, 157, 161, 163, 167, 171, 173, 177, 179, 185, 187, 189, 191, 197, ....

Let's examine them one by one.

If the sum of two numbers is 11, Sachin will think that the numbers would be (2,9), (3,8), (4,7) or (5,6).

Sachin : "As 11 is not expressible as sum of two primes, Prashant can't know the numbers."

Here, the product would be 18(2*9), 24(3*8), 28(4*7) or 30(5*6). In all the cases except for product 30, Prashant would know the numbers.

- if product of two numbers is 18:

Prashant : "Since the product is 18, the sum could be either 11(2,9) or 9(3,6). But if the sum was 9, Sachin would have deduced that I might know the numbers as (2,7) is the possible prime numbers pair. Hence, the numbers must be 2 and 9." (OR in otherwords, 9 is not in the Possible Sum List)

- if product of two numbers is 24:

Prashant : "Since the product is 24, the sum could be either 14(2,12), 11(3,8) or 10(4,6). But 14 and 10 are not in the Possible Sum List. Hence, the numbers must be 3 and 8."

- if product of two numbers is 28:

Prashant : "Since the product is 28, the sum could be either 16(2,14) or 11(4,7). But 16 is not in the Possible Sum List. Hence, the numbers must be 4 and 7."

- if product of two numbers is 30:

Prashant : "Since the product is 30, the sum could be either 17(2,15), 13(3,10) or 11(5,6). But 13 is not in the Possible Sum List. Hence, the numbers must be either (2,15) or (5,6)." Here, Prashant won't be sure of the numbers.

Hence, Prashant will be sure of the numbers if product is either 18, 24 or 28.

Sachin : "Since Prashant knows the numbers, they must be either (3,8), (4,7) or (5,6)." But he won't be sure. Hence, the sum is not 11.

There are 4 mathematicians - Brahma, Sachin, Prashant and Nakul - having lunch in a hotel. Suddenly, Brahma thinks of 2 integer numbers greater than 1 and says, "The sum of the numbers is..." and he whispers the sum to Sachin. Then he says, "The product of the numbers is..." and he whispers the product to Prashant. After that following conversation takes place :

Sachin : Prashant, I don't think that we know the numbers.

Prashant : Aha!, now I know the numbers.

Sachin : Oh, now I also know the numbers.

Nakul : Now, I also know the numbers.

What are the numbers?

For Solution SCROLL DOWN...

Solution:

The numbers are 4 and 13.

As Sachin is initially confident that they (i.e. he and Prashant) don't know the numbers, we can conclude that -

1) The sum must not be expressible as sum of two primes, otherwise Sachin could not have been sure in advance that Prashant did not know the numbers.

2) The product cannot be less than 12, otherwise there would only be one choice and Prashant would have figured that out also.

Such possible sum are - 11, 17, 23, 27, 29, 35, 37, 41, 47, 51, 53, 57, 59, 65, 67, 71, 77, 79, 83, 87, 89, 93, 95, 97, 101, 107, 113, 117, 119, 121, 123, 125, 127, 131, 135, 137, 143, 145, 147, 149, 155, 157, 161, 163, 167, 171, 173, 177, 179, 185, 187, 189, 191, 197, ....

Let's examine them one by one.

If the sum of two numbers is 11, Sachin will think that the numbers would be (2,9), (3,8), (4,7) or (5,6).

Sachin : "As 11 is not expressible as sum of two primes, Prashant can't know the numbers."

Here, the product would be 18(2*9), 24(3*8), 28(4*7) or 30(5*6). In all the cases except for product 30, Prashant would know the numbers.

- if product of two numbers is 18:

Prashant : "Since the product is 18, the sum could be either 11(2,9) or 9(3,6). But if the sum was 9, Sachin would have deduced that I might know the numbers as (2,7) is the possible prime numbers pair. Hence, the numbers must be 2 and 9." (OR in otherwords, 9 is not in the Possible Sum List)

- if product of two numbers is 24:

Prashant : "Since the product is 24, the sum could be either 14(2,12), 11(3,8) or 10(4,6). But 14 and 10 are not in the Possible Sum List. Hence, the numbers must be 3 and 8."

- if product of two numbers is 28:

Prashant : "Since the product is 28, the sum could be either 16(2,14) or 11(4,7). But 16 is not in the Possible Sum List. Hence, the numbers must be 4 and 7."

- if product of two numbers is 30:

Prashant : "Since the product is 30, the sum could be either 17(2,15), 13(3,10) or 11(5,6). But 13 is not in the Possible Sum List. Hence, the numbers must be either (2,15) or (5,6)." Here, Prashant won't be sure of the numbers.

Hence, Prashant will be sure of the numbers if product is either 18, 24 or 28.

Sachin : "Since Prashant knows the numbers, they must be either (3,8), (4,7) or (5,6)." But he won't be sure. Hence, the sum is not 11.