No, not the one in Tennessee! This Memphis was the first capital of Egypt and remained an important city for thousands of years. Legend says that King Menes built the city by rerouting the Nile, and its founding is dated by Herodotus as 3100 BCE. It remained a powerful city even after the Egyptian capital was moved to Thebes. Eventually, though, Alexandria became the favorite city in Greek and Roman times, and Memphis continued to decline.